Export Control

Export Controlled Items, Software, and Technology

The following is an overview of export controlled items and their respective control lists, including the Commerce Control List (CCL) and the U.S. Munitions List (USML), as well as specific pathogens and toxins, and chemicals, chemical agent precursors, propellants, explosives, and energetic materials.

The lists below deal with what may be sent, or in some circumstances, what technology may be disclosed. (See the lists of export controlled or embargoed countries, entities, and persons for guidance about “where” and “to whom” items, information, or software may be sent or disclosed.)


Dual-Use Items and Munitions
Pathogens and Toxins
Chemicals, Chemical Agent Precursors, Propellants, Explosives, and Energetic Materials

Dual-Use Items and Munitions

Items, information, and software subject to U.S. export control laws and potentially used in a university environment are generally categorized in two lists: the USML and the CCL. The USML controls related to munitions are strict across the board. Items on the USML may not be exported without a license and may not be accessed by foreign nationals without a license. The CCL controls depend on the nature of the “dual use” item and the destination. Dual use means both a civil and military use. The CCL classifications are illustrated by Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCN.) If an item is not on the CCL or USML, and falls within the Commerce Department jurisdiction, it is classified as EAR99. EAR99 items are the majority of commercial goods and are only controlled for sanctioned/embargoed countries or prohibited end users and end uses. A number of exceptions and exclusion to control also apply. Click through the links to view the details of each control category and list.

Commerce Control List (CCL) – (EAR)
Published by the U.S. Commerce Department in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR)

Detailed explanations about ECCNs and EAR99 may be found here.

U.S. Munitions List (USML) – (ITAR)
Published by the US State Department in the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR)

  • Category I
    Firearms, Close Assault Weapons and Combat Shotguns
  • Category II
    Guns and Armament
  • Category III
  • Category IV
    Launch Vehicles, Guided Missiles, Ballistic Missiles, Rockets, Torpedoes, Bombs, and Mines
  • Category V
    Explosives and Energetic Materials, Propellants, Incendiary Agents, and Their Constituents
  • Category VI
    Surface Vessels of War and Special Naval Equipment
  • Category VII
    Ground Vehicles
  • Category VIII
    Aircraft and Related Articles
  • Category IX
    Military Training Equipment and Training
  • Category X
    Personal Protective Equipment
  • Category XI
    Military Electronics
  • Category XII
    Fire Control, Range Finder, Optical and Guidance and Control Equipment
  • Category XIII
    Materials and Miscellaneous Articles
  • Category XIV
    Toxicological Agents, Including Chemical Agents, Biological Agents, and Associated Equipment
  • Category XV
    Spacecraft and Related Articles
  • Category XVI
    Nuclear Weapons Related Articles
  • Category XVII
    Classified Articles, Technical Data, and Defense Services Not Otherwise Enumerated
  • Category XVIII
    Directed Energy Weapons
  • Category XIX
    Gas Turbine Engines and Associated Equipment
  • Category XX
    Submersible Vessels and Related Articles
  • Category XXI
    Articles, Technical Data, and Defense Services Not Otherwise Enumerated

Pathogens and Toxins

Department of Commerce dual use export controlled pathogens and toxins are listed below. These pathogens and toxins are found on the Commerce Control List (CCL) in Category 1 at ECCNs 1C351 through 1C354. Please note that export controls also apply to genetic elements and genetically modified organisms that contain DNA associated with the pathogenicity of these biological materials. Civil and/or criminal penalties apply to international shipments without an export license of any export controlled pathogen or genetic material containing the controlled DNA.

You will need to contact the Export Compliance Officer if your research requires an export controlled pathogen or genetic material containing the controlled DNA to be sent outside of the U.S. so that an export license application can be prepared. Export licenses take 4-6 weeks for approval, so please plan accordingly.


African horse sickness virus
African swine fever virus
Andean potato latent virus (Potato Andean latent tymovirus)
Andes virus
Avian Influenza identified as having high pathogenicity*


* AI viruses that have an intravenous pathogenicity index in 6-week-old chickens greater than 1.2; AI viruses that cause at least 75% mortality in 4 to 8 week old chickens infected intravenously; AI viruses of the H5 or H7 should be submitted to further testing


Bacillus anthracis
Blue Tongue virus
Brucella abortus
Brucella melitensis
Brucella suis
Burkholderia mallei (Pseudomonas mallei)
Burkholderia pseudomallei

Botulinum toxins


Chapare virus
Chikungunya virus
Chlamydophilia psittaci (Chlamydia psittaci)
Choclo virus
Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus (Corynebacterium sepedonicum)
Clostridium argentinense (formerly known as Clostricium botulinum Type G), botulinum neurotoxin producing strains
Clostridium baratii, botulinum neurotoxin producing strains
Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium butyricum, botulinum neurotoxin producing strains
Clostridium perfringens, epsilon toxin producing type
Coccidioides immitis
Coccidioides posadasii
Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Helminthosporium oryzae)
Colletotrichum kahawae (Colleototrichum coffeanum var. virulans)
Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus
Coxiella burnetii

Cholera toxin
Clostridium perfringens alpha, beta 1, beta 1, epsilon and iota toxins


Dengue fever virus
Dobrava-Belgrade virus

Diacetoxyscirpenol toxin


Eastern equine encephalitis virus
Ebola virus


Foot and Mouth Disease virus
Francisella tularensis


Goat Pox virus
Guanarito virus


Hantaan virus
Hendra virus

HT-2 toxin


None listed


Japanese Encephalitis virus
Junin virus


Kyasanur Forest virus


Laguna Negra virus
Lassa fever virus
Louping Ill virus
Lujo virus
Lumpy Skin Disease virus
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus


Machupo virus
Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae)
Marburg virus
Microcyclus ulei (Dothidella ulei)
Monkey pox virus
Murray Valley encephalitis virus
Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumonaie (strain F38)
Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (contagious bovine pleuroneumonia)

Microcystin (Cyanginosin)
Modeccin toxin


Newcastle disease virus
Nipah virus


Omsk haemorrhagic fefer virus
Oropouche Virus


Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Peronosclerospora sacchari)
Peste des petitis ruminants virus
Phoma glycinicola (Pyrenochaeta glycines)
Porcine enterovirus type 9 (swine vesicular disease virus)
Porcine herpes virus (Aujeszky’s disease)
Potato spindle tuber viroid
Powassan virus
Puccinnia Graminis (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici)
Puccinia striiformis (Puccinia glumarum)


None listed


Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2
Rathayibacter toxicus
Reconstructed replication competent forms of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segment

Rickettsia prowazekii
Rift Valley fever virus
Rinderpest virus
Rocio virus



Sabia virus
Salmonella typhi
SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
Sclerophthora rayssiae var.zeae
Seoul virus
Sheep pox virus
Shigella dysenteriae
Sin nombre virus
St. Louis encephalitis
Swine fever virus (Hog cholera virus)
Synchytrium endobioticum

Shiga toxin
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serogroups 026, 045, 0103, 0104, 0111, 0121, 0145, 0157, and other shiga toxin producing serogoups
Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, hemolysin alpha toxin, and toxic shock syndrome toxin (Staphylococcus enterotoxin F)


Teschen Disease virus
Thecaphora solani
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Far Eastern Subtype)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Siberian Subtype)
Tilletia indica

T-2 toxin


None listed


Variola virus
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
Vesicular stomatitis virus
Vibrio cholerae

Verotoxin and other Shiga-like ribosome inactivating proteins
Viscum Album Lectin 1 (Viscumin)
Volkensin toxin

W, X, Y, Z

Western Equine Encephalitis virus
Xanthmonas alibilineans
Xanthmonas axonopodis pv. Citri (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri)
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Pseudomonas campestris pv. Oryzae)
Yellow fever virus
Yersinia pestis

Also note that the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) controls certain military-related toxins and pathogens at Category XIV of the US Munitions List (USML). The ITAR treats as a defense article any “biological agent or biologically derived substance specifically developed or modified to increase its capability to produce casualties in humans or livestock or to degrade equipment or damage crops.” These ITAR export control-listed biological materials will also require an export license. Furthermore, foreign nationals may not access ITAR-controlled biological materials or their disclosure-restricted technologies in the US without government approval.

In the unlikely event that you need access to a disclosure-restricted ITAR controlled biological material or its technology please contact the Export Compliance Officer before receipt.

Chemicals, Chemical Agent Precursors, Propellants, Explosives, and Energetic Materials

The EAR controls chemical agent precursors in 1C350 and 1C355. 1C350 includes chemicals that may be used as precursors for toxic chemical agents. 1C355 includes Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) Schedule 2 and 3 chemicals and families of chemicals not controlled by ECCN 1C350 or by the Department of State under the ITAR. Further information about the Chemical Weapons Convention requirements of the EAR may be found on the CWC website.

The ITAR controls certain military-related Explosives and Energetic Materials, Propellants, Incendiary Agents, and Their Constituents at Category V and Toxicological Agents, Including Chemical Agents, Biological Agents, and Associated Equipment at Category XIV, of the US Munitions List (USML)